I don't think reading math books will improve your programming skills.

This is something I found true of a lot of developers. Unless they use the most complicated math or physics, they think their game will be bad. Other developers who are good at math focus on making complicated maths and then when their game is done no one sees the math going on and the actual game sucks(while nobody cares about their I'm good at math look at my shiny maths rants). Focus on simulating realistic gameplay instead of trying to do real physics simulation. There is no difference between a direction, speed and acceleration variable together and a mathematical vector. A matrix is not much different then an excel chart. A lot of people reading this will think I'm saying this because I suck at math but in fact I don't. Math comes naturally to me. Complicated math doesn't belong in a game, the player won't notice any difference between realistic simulation vs real physics simulation and like in dwarf fortress the physics even if based in reality will end up making weird game play like whips being lightsabers, some blunt weapons being super bad, and naked+4 adamantine cloaks being the best armor.

If you need to focus on math, you should try to think a lot about "financial" type math, ie exponential functions(x=x+x*0.1 recursive loops), if you want RNG, look for mersenne twister and int normal distribution libraries and real normal disbution, if you're in c++ then there's random in the STL which is FAR better than rand from c.

For reference charts I mostly use excel and do a beta chart, and then when I finished the design of the chart(every basic thing as a value) I look for formulas that could automate the charts. Once, the tab I came up with was too complicated to ever find a formula without wasting ridiculous amounts of time, so I just made a function that took an int and then returned an int. This started with my "Building" skill, I wanted to get a quality modifier depending on building skill of a character to randomize building quality. I'll attach the chart I finalized.

So maybe this can help you so I'll describe the process that I used to come up with this chart, at first I was trying for formulas to automatically get % for quality types, but I never came close to get a beginning of formula. If anything I'd have to get 10 different and huge formulas to make a chart resembling this I think(I might be wrong). In the end I chose to do the whole chart by hand, but even this needed some work. I started from the terrible quality at 100% odds. then it decreases rapidly, and for every other quality except the 2 last ones the "peak" is 30% so I chose my numbers depending on that and sometimes approximately approaching a normal distribution and sometimes a "thinner" distribution.

So you cant see the terrible at 100% and masterwork at 100% that ended up in the code, but it's very simple really, I just took 5% from terrible at every step(for 100% terrible you need negative skill which you can only have with debuffs) until it reached 0 and gave the 5 percent somewhat randomly and to get at masterwork 100%, I took back 4% of the last quality past skill lvl 50 and gave them to exquisite and masterwork(if the quality has <4% then i take it all and the rest from the next), then when exquisite and masterwork were 50-50, i gave 5 percent from exquisite to masterwork until it goes to 100%. The "hardest" thing was to know how to add percents between 0 and 50 skill, and once I went with "every quality has a peak of 30% except the first and 2 last ones" then I built around from there. The end result is not perfect, but it's charming, at least to me, and I think I ended up with a good solution.

edit: also the normal skill cap is 50 and you can only get to 100% masterwork with a lot of skill buffs.

I'll never use overly complicated maths like integrals in the code, this is a game after all and not a scientific simulation software. I'm not bad at math, if anything I'm good at it, but I have the principle to use the simplest method until I'm forced to use a more complicated one.

Heres the link to excel file

http://www.filedropper.com/buildingqualityhiroguetempleI hope you read my whole post and deduce that reading math books is not the best option for you