Rationals are in Common Lisp. Most languages don't bother with them because for a long time they were too inefficient. Also the precision the offer is mostly not needed.
Common Lisp also has complex numbers. Matrices and complex nmbers, as opposed to integers and floats, are not generally useful but only in certain domains. Putting them in the base language looks like overkill. Matrices have the additional problem of not being one but infintely many datatypes, that is, they'd need to be a parametrized data types.
Some programmming languages (not C/C++ though) were also built with the idea of keeping the base language as small as possible. Notably these languages are mostly built by people with an academic background, because building a minimal language requires way more thought and knowledge about mathematics than building one that just already has everything you want built in.
So, when a mathematician builds a language that is made as a programming language instead as a tool for a certain mathematical field, it is more likely to include less constructs instead of more.